What is the common cause of metabolic alkalosis?
The most common causes are volume depletion (particularly when involving loss of gastric acid and chloride (Cl) due to recurrent vomiting or nasogastric suction) and diuretic use. Metabolic alkalosis involving loss or excess secretion of Cl is termed chloride-responsive.
What are three causes of metabolic alkalosis?
Causes of metabolic alkalosis
- Loss of stomach acids. This is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis. …
- Excess of antacids. …
- Diuretics. …
- Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia). …
- Reduced volume of blood in the arteries (EABV). …
- Heart, kidney, or liver failure. …
- Genetic causes.
Which drugs cause metabolic acidosis?
The most common drugs and chemicals that induce the anion gap type of acidosis are biguanides, alcohols, polyhydric sugars, salicylates, cyanide and carbon monoxide.
What diuretics cause metabolic alkalosis?
Chloruretic agents such as chlorothiazide, furosemide, and their congeners all directly produce the loss of chloride, sodium, and fluid in the urine (12). These losses, in turn, promote metabolic alkalosis by several possible mechanisms.
Do steroids cause metabolic alkalosis?
Excessive steroid use could cause a metabolic alkalosis.
What are three causes of metabolic acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis is a serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body’s acid-base balance. Metabolic acidosis has three main root causes: increased acid production, loss of bicarbonate, and a reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete excess acids.
Why do thiazides cause metabolic alkalosis?
Patients on thiazide diuretics may experience a hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis due to the increase in aldosterone-mediated K and H ions excretion in the intercalated cells of the CT.
Why does Lasix cause metabolic alkalosis?
Thus, metabolic alkalosis in chronic furosemide therapy is associated with stimulation of all three collecting tubule ATPases. The high aldosterone level likely stimulates the H-ATPase in both CCT and MCT; and in the former it also stimulates Na-K-ATPase activity.
Can diarrhea cause metabolic alkalosis?
Concomitant NH4+ losses in the diarrhea fluid may also contribute to the development of metabolic alkalosis (2), but the disorder is sustained unless the Cl− losses can be replaced (Table 4).
What drugs cause Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis?
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), aldosterone receptor blockers (ARBs), and renin inhibitors all interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing hyperkalemia with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis 102–104.
Can antibiotics cause metabolic alkalosis?
Beta-lactam antibiotics (sodium penicillin, carbenicillin) use can be associated with metabolic alkalosis as these drugs act as non-absorbable anions which increases K+ and H+ excretion resulting in metabolic alkalosis.
Does formic acid cause metabolic acidosis?
Methanol is not directly toxic, but formic acid is both directly toxic (e.g. direct optic nerve toxicity) and inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (causing a form of histotoxic hypoxia). The acidosis is due to both formic acid, and acidic metabolites (such as lactate) from the mitochondrial dysfunction.
How do laxatives cause metabolic alkalosis?
Chronic use of laxatives is known to cause wasting of both ions . Hypokalemia per se is expected to rather stimulate renal acid excretion and bicarbonate synthesis, leading to metabolic alkalosis [13-15]. In our patient, intestinal losses of HCO3– may have exceeded the renal capacity to compensate these losses.
Which diuretic drug does not cause hyperkalemia?
Medications called potassium-sparing diuretics don’t lower potassium levels. Examples include spironolactone (Aldactone), eplerenone (Inspra) and triamterene (Dyrenium).
How do nurses treat metabolic alkalosis?
Restrict oral intake and reduce noxious environmental stimuli; use intermittent and low suction during NG suctioning; irrigate gastric tube with isotonic solutions rather than water. Limits gastric losses of HCl, potassium, and calcium. Provide seizures and safety precautions as indicated.